Child SJ, Greninger AL, Geballe AP. 2021. "Rapid adaptation to human protein kinase R by a unique genomic rearrangement in rhesus cytomegalovirus." PLoS pathogens. 26;17(1):e1009088.  


Duke ER, Boeckh M, and Geballe AP. 2020. "Cytomegalovirus." In: Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology, 2nd edition (E.J. Kuipers, ed) pp. 807-814.


Limaye AP, Green ML, Edmison B, Stevens-Ayers T, Xie H, Chatterton-Kirchmeier S, Geballe AP, Singh N, and Boeckh M. 2019. "Prospective assessment of CMV-specific immune responses in high-risk donor seropositive (D+) recipient seronegative (R-) liver transplant recipients receiving either antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy." J. Infect. Dis.  jiz181.

Zamora D, Krantz EM, Green ML, Joncas-Schronce L, Blazevic R, Edmison BC, Huang M, Stevens-Ayers T, Jerome KR, Geballe AP, and Boeckh M.  "The cytomegalovirus humoral response against epithelial cells entry-mediated infection in the primary setting infection after hematopoietic cell transplantation." J. Infect Dis. (in press).


Bayer A, Brennan G, and Geballe AP. 2018. "Adaptation by copy number variation in monopartite viruses." Current opinion in Virology.  2018, Dec;33:7-12. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2018.07.001. NIHMS980090 [review] Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Child SJ, Hickson SE, Bayer A, Malouli D, Fruh K, and Geballe AP.  2018. "Antagonism of 1 the protein kinase R pathway in human cells by rhesus cytomegalovirus." J. Virol. 92, PMCID: PMC5827409 [original work].

Hickson SE, Margineantu D, Hockenbery DM, Simon JA, and Geballe AP. 2018. "Inhibition of vaccinia virus replication by nitazoxanide." Virology 518:398-405. [original work].


Braggin JD, Child SJ, and Geballe AP. 2016. "Essential role of protein kinase R antagonism by TRS1 in human cytomegalovirus replication." Virology. 489(1):75-85. 

Carpentier, KS and Geballe AP. 2016. "An evolutionary view of the Arms Race between protein kinase R and large DNA viruses." J. Virol.  90(7):3280-3283.

Daugherty MD, Schaller AM, Geballe AP, and Malik HS. 2016. "Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals."  eLife. 2016;5:e14228. 

Gray EE, Winship D, Snyder JM, Child SJ, Geballe AP, Stetson DB. 2016. "The AIM2-like receptors are dispensable for the interferon response to intracellular DNA." Immunity. 45(2):255-266. 

Carpentier, KS, Esparo N,  Child SJ, Geballe AP.  2016. "A single amino acid dictates Protein Kinase R susceptibility to unrelated viral antagonists."   PLoS Pathogens. 12(10): e1005966.  

Mouna L, Hernadez H, Bonte D, Brost R, Amazit L, Delgui LR, Brune W, Geballe AP, Beau I, and Esclatine A. 2016. "Analysis of the role of autophagy inhibition by two complementary human cytomegalovirus BECN1/Beclin 1-binding proteins." Autophagy. 12(2):327-342.  


Schleiss MR, Bierle CJ, Swanson EC, McVoy MA, Wang JB, Al-Mahdi Z, and Geballe AP. 2015.  "Vaccination with a live attenuated cytomegalovirus devoid of a protein kinase R inhibitory gene results in reduced maternal viremia and improved pregnancy outcome in a guinea pig congenital infection model." J. Virol. 89(19):9727-9738.

 Brennan G, Kitzman JO, Shendure J, Geballe AP. 2015.  "Experimental evolution identifies VACV mutations in A24R and A35R that antagonize the PKR pathway and accompany collapse of an extragenic gene amplification." J. Virol. 89(19):9986-9997.


Brennan G, Kitzman JO, Rothenburg S, Shendure J, Geballe AP. 2014.  "Adaptive gene amplification as an intermediate step in expansion of virus host range." PLoS Pathogens. 10(3): e1004002.


Bierle CJ, Semmens KM, Geballe AP. 2013.  "Double-stranded RNA binding by the human cytomegalovirus PKR antagonist TRS1." Virology. 442(1):28-37.


Bierle CJ, Schleiss MR, Geballe AP. 2012.  "Antagonism of the protein kinase R pathway by the guinea pig cytomegalovirus US22-family gene gp145." Virology. 433(1):157-66.

Chaumorcel, M, Lussignol M, Mouna L, Cavignac Y, Fahie K, Cotte-Laffitte J, Geballe AP, Brune W, Beau I, Codogno P and Esclatine, A. 2012.  "The Human Cytomegalovirus Protein TRS1 Inhibits Autophagy via Its Interaction with Beclin 1. J. of Virol." 86(5):2571-2584.

Elde, NC, Child SJ, Eickbush MT, Kitzman JO, Rogers KS, Shendure J, Geballe AP, Malik HS. 2012.  "Poxviruses deploy genomic accordions to adapt rapidly against host antiviral defenses." Cell. 150(4):831-41.

Child, SJ, Brennan G, Braggin JE, Geballe AP. 2012.  "Species specificity of protein kinase R antagonism by cytomegalovirus TRS1 genes." J. Virol. 86(7):3880-3889.


Boeckh M, Geballe AP. 2011.  "Cytomegalovirus: pathogen, paradigm, and puzzle." J Clin Invest. 121(5):1673-80.

Gantt S, Carlsson J, Ikoma M, Gachelet E, Gray M, Geballe AP, Corey L, Casper C, Lagunoff M, Vieira J. 2011.  "The HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication in vitro." Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 55(6):2696-703.


Strang BL, Geballe AP, Coen DM. 2010.  "Association of human cytomegalovirus proteins IRS1 and TRS1 with the viral DNA polymerase accessory subunit UL44." J Gen Virol. 91(Pt 9):2167-75.



Marshall EE, Geballe AP. 2009.  "Multifaceted evasion of the interferon response by cytomegalovirus." J Interferon Cytokine Res. 29(9):609-19.

Marshall EE, Bierle CJ, Brune W, Geballe AP. 2009.  "Essential role for either TRS1 or IRS1 in human cytomegalovirus replication." J Virol. 83(9):4112-20.

Child SJ, Geballe AP. 2009. "Binding and relocalization of protein kinase R by murine cytomegalovirus." J Virol. 83(4):1790-9.

Elde NC, Child SJ, Geballe AP, Malik HS. 2009.  "Protein kinase R reveals an evolutionary model for defeating viral mimicry." Nature. 457(7228):485-9.


Hakki M, Geballe AP. 2008.  "Cellular serine/threonine phosphatase activity during human cytomegalovirus infection." Virology. 380(2):255-63.

Hakki, M and Geballe, AP. 2008. Cytomegalovirus, p.439-451. In K. K. Holmes (ed.), Sexually transmitted diseases, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division, New York.


Spevak CC, Park EH, Geballe AP, Pelletier J, Sachs MS. 2006.  "her-2 upstream open reading frame effects on the use of downstream initiation codons." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 350(4):834-41.

Sachs MS and Geballe AP. 2006.  "Downstream control of upstream open reading frames." Genes and Development. 20(8):915-921.

Hakki M, Marshall EE, De Niro KL, Geballe AP. 2006.  "Binding and nuclear relocalization of PKR by human cytomegalovirus TRS1." J. Virol. 80(23):11817-11826.

Child SJ, Hanson LK, Brown CE, Janzen DM, Geballe AP. 2006.  "Double-stranded RNA-binding by a heterodimeric complex of murine cytomegalovirus m142 and m143 proteins." J. Virol. 80(20):10173-10180.


Hakki M, Geballe AP. 2005.  "Double-stranded RNA binding by human cytomegalovirus pTRS1." J. Virol. 79(12):7311-7318.


Child SJ, Hakki M, De Niro KL, Geballe AP. 2004.  "Evasion of cellular antiviral responses by human cytomegalovirus TRS1 and IRS1." J. Virol. 78(1):197-205.

Janzen DM, Geballe AP. 2004.  "The effect of eukaryotic release factor depletion on translation termination in human cell lines."  Nucleic Acids Research. 32(15):4491-502.

Scott JD, Englund JA, Myerson D, Geballe AP. 2004.  "Influenza pneumonia presenting as progressive focal infiltrates in a stem cell transplant recipient." J Clinic Virol. 31(2):96-9.


Janzen DM, Frolova L, Geballe AP. 2002.  "Inhibition of translation termination mediated by an interaction of eukaryotic release factor 1 with a nascent peptidyl-tRNA." Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22(24):8562-8570.

Sachs MS, Geballe AP. 2002.  "Biochemistry. Sense and sensitivity--controlling the ribosome." Science. 297(5588):1820-1.

Child SJ, Jarrahian S, Harper VM, Geballe AP. 2002.  "Complementation of vaccinia virus lacking the double-stranded RNA-binding protein gene E3L by human cytomegalovirus."  J. Virol. 76(10):4912-8.


Alderete JP, Child SJ, Geballe AP. 2001.  "Abundant early expression of gpUL4 from a human cytomegalovirus mutant lacking a repressive upstream open reading frame." J. Virol. 75(15):7188-92.

Bar M, Shannon-Lowe C, Geballe AP. 2001.  "Differentiation of human cytomegalovirus genotypes in immunocompromised patients on the basis of UL4 gene polymorphisms." J. Infect Diseases. 183(2):218-225.


Morris DR, Geballe AP. 2000.  "Upstream open reading frames as regulators of mRNA translation." Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20(23):8635-42.

Landini MP, Lazzarotto T, Xu J, Geballe AP, Mocarski ES. 2000.  "Humoral immune response to proteins of human cytomegalovirus latency-associated transcripts." Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 6(2):100-8.

Geballe AP and Sachs MS. 2000. "Translational control by upstream open reading frames." p-595-614. In Sonenberg N, Hershey JWB, Matthews MB (eds.), Translational Control of Gene Expression, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York.



Child SJ, Miller MK, Geballe AP. 1999. "Cell type-dependent and -independent control of HER-2/neu translation." Int. J. Biochem. and Cell Biol. 31:201-213.

Child SJ, Miller MK, A.P. Geballe AP. 1999. "Translational control by an upstream open reading frame in the HER-2/neu transcript." J. Biol. Chem. 274:24335-24341.

Alderete JP, Jarrahian S, and Geballe AP. 1999. "Translational effects of mutations and polymorphisms in a repressive upstream open reading frame of the human cytomegalovirus UL4 gene."  J. Virol. 73:8330-8337.


Cao J, Geballe AP. 1998. "Ribosomal release without peptidyl tRNA hydrolysis at translation termination in a eukaryotic system." RNA 4:181-188.

Vieira J, Schall TJ, Corey L, Geballe AP. 1998. "Functional analysis of the human cytomegalovirus US28 gene by insertion mutagenesis with the green fluorescence protein gene." J. Virol. 72:8158-8165.


Geballe AP. 1996. "Translational control mediated by upstream AUG codons." p. 173-197. In: J.W.B. Hershey, M.B. Mathews and N. Sonenberg, eds., Translational Control. Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Cao J, Geballe AP. 1996. "Coding Sequence-Dependent Ribosomal Arrest at Termination of Translation." Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:603-608.

Harrington RD, Geballe AP. 1996. "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 susceptible whole cell and microcell hybrids." Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 26:522-530.

Cao J, Geballe AP. 1996. "Inhibition of nascent peptide release at translation termination." Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:7109-7114.


Cao J, Geballe AP. 1995. "Translational inhibition by a human cytomegalovirus upstream open reading frame despite inefficient utilization of its AUG codon." J. Virol. 69:1030-1036.


Geballe AP. and D.R. Morris. 1994. "Initiation codons within 5' leaders of mRNAs as regulators of translation." Trends Biochem. Sci. 19:159-164.

Cao J, Geballe AP. 1994. "Analysis of the human cytomegalovirus gpUL4 (gp48) transcript leader translational signal by retroviral mutagenesis." Virology 205:151-160.


Degnin CR, Schleiss MR, Cao J, Geballe AP. 1993. "Translational inhibition mediated by a short upstream open reading frame in the human cytomegalovirus gpUL4 (gp48) transcript." J. Virol. 67:5514-5521.

Harrington RD, Geballe AP. 1993. "Cofactor requirement for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into a CD4-expressing human cell line." J. Virol. 67:5939-5947.


Geballe AP, Gray MK. 1992. "Variable inhibition of cell-free translation by HIV-1 leaders sequences." Nucleic Acids Research 20:4291-4297.

Yoo BJ, Spaete RR, Geballe AP, M. Selby, M. Houghton, and J.H. Han. 1992. "The 5' end dependent translation initiation of hepatitis C viral RNA and the presence of putative positive and negative translational control elements within the 5' untranslated region." Virology 191:889-899.


Riddell SR, Rabin M, Geballe AP, Britt WJ, Greenberg PD. 1991. "Class I MHC-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of cells infected with human cytomegalovirus does not require endogenous viral gene expression." J. Immunol. 146:2795-2804.

Biegalke BJ, Geballe AP. 1991. "Sequence requirements for activation of the HIV-1 LTR by human cytomegalovirus." Virology 183:381-385.

Schleiss M, Degnin CR, Geballe AP. 1991. "Translational Control of Human Cytomegalovirus gp48 Expression." J. Virol. 65:6782-6789.


Biegalke B, Geballe AP. 1990. "Translational inhibition by cytomegalovirus transcript leaders." Virology 177:657-667


Geballe AP, Mocarski ES. 1988. Translational Control of Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression is Mediated by Upstream AUG Codons. J.Virol. 62:3334-3340.