The Statistical Evaluation of Medical Tests for Classification and Prediction book describes statistical concepts and techniques for evaluating medical diagnostic tests and biomarkers for detecting disease. More generally, the techniques pertain to the statistical classification problem for predicting a dichotomous outcome. Measures for quantifying test accuracy are described including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, diagnostic likelihood ratios and the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve that is commonly used for continuous and ordinal valued tests. Statistical procedures are presented for estimating and comparing them. Regression frameworks for assessing factors that influence test accuracy and for comparing tests while adjusting for such factors are presented.
This book presents many worked examples of real data and should be of interest to practicing statisticians or quantitative researchers involved in the development of tests for classification or prediction in medicine.
|Study||Reference||Stata File||ASCII File|
|CASS||Leisenring et al. (2000)
Weiner et al. (1979)
|Pancreatic Ca biomarkers||Wieand et al. (1989)||wiedat2b.dta||wiedat2b.csv
|Ultrasound for hepatic mets||Tosteson and Begg. (1988)||tostbegg2.dta||tostbegg2.csv
|CARET PSA||Etzioni et al. (1999)||psa2b.dta||psa2b.csv
|Gene expression array||Pepe et al. (2003)||orchratio2.dta||orchratio2.csv
|Norton neonatal audiology||Norton et al. (2000)||nnhs.dta||nnhs.csv
|Leisenring neonatal audiology||Leisenring et al. (1997)||lplaudio_b.dta||lplaudio_b.csv
|Prostate Ca - St. Louis||Smith et al. (1997)||psa_dre_v2.dta||psa_dre_v2.csv
|Stover audiology||Stover et al. (1996)||dp2.dta||dp2.csv
|Scintigraphy study||Muller et al. (1989)||mlt1.dta||mlt1.csv
|59 Pap screen studies||Fahey et al. (1995)||fim.dta||fim.csv
|Prenatal screen data (hypothetical)||hpns.dta||hpns.csv
Stata format data files can be read with versions 8 and above.
Comma-separated ASCII (csv) files include variable names on the first row.
Etzioni R, Pepe M, Longton G, Hu C, Goodman G (1999). Incorporating the time dimension in receiver operating characteristic curves: A case study of prostate cancer. Medical Decision Making 19:242-51.
Fahey MT, Irwig LM, Macaskill P (1995). Meta-analysis of Pap test accuracy. American Journal of Epidemiology 141:680-9.
Leisenring W, Alonzo T, Pepe MS (2000). Comparisons of predictive values of binary medical diagnostic tests for paired designs. Biometrics 56:345-51.
Leisenring W, Pepe MS, Longton G (1997). A marginal regression modelling framework for evaluating medical diagnostic tests. Statistics in Medicine 16:1263-81.
Muller C, Wasserman HJ, Erlank P, Klopper JF, Morkel HR, Ellmann A (1989). Optimisation of density and contrast yielded by multiformat photographic images used for scintigraphy. Physics in Medicine and Biology 34:473-81.
Norton SJ, Gorga MP, Widen JE, Folsom RC, Sininger Y, Cone-Wesson B, Vohr BR, Mascher K, Fletcher K. (2000). Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: Evaluation of transient evoked ototacoustic emission, distortion product otoacoustic emission, and auditory brain stem response test performance. Ear and Hearing 21:508-28.
Pepe MS, Longton G, Anderson G, Schummer M (2003). Selecting differentially expressed genes from microarray experiments. Biometrics (in press) .
Smith DS, Bullock AD, Catalona WJ (1997). Racial differences in operating characteristics of prostate cancer screening tests. The Journal of Urology 158:1861-66.
Stover L, Gorga MP, Neely T (1996). Torwards optimizing the clinical utility of distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100:956-967.
Tosteson AN, Begg CB (1988). A general regression methodology for ROC curve estimation. Medical Decision Making 8:204-15.
Weiner DA, Ryan TJ, McCabe CH, Kennedy JW, Schloss M, Tristani F, Chaitman BR, Fisher LD (1979). Exercise stress testing. Correlations among history of angina, ST-segment response and prevalence of coronary-artery disease in the Coronary Artery Aurgery Study (CASS). New England Journal of Medicine 301(5):230-5.
Wieand S, Gail MH, James BR, James KL (1989). A family of nonparametric statistics for comparing diagnostic markers with paired or unpaired data. Biometrika 76:585-92.
Stata version 7 or higher required for most programs; version 8 or 9 required for some as updates and additions become available.